understanding endodontic anatomy in 3d
For many decades endodontics has been a two-dimensional discipline, being evaluated and assessed mainly by 2d periapical radiographs. Nowadays the use of CBCT is becoming more frequent in dentistry and images can be used profitably also in endodontics. 3d preoperative images allow not only a more precise diagnosis and treatment planning, but also a better understanding of the complexities of root canals. Such a knowledge becomes fundamental to understand anatomical features that may affect quality of shaping and cleaning procedures, minimizing the risks of iatrogenic mistakes. Such a preliminary understanding will not only reduce the risks of missed canals and missed treatments, but will also allow to plan a correct approach to the different canals based on the 3d case assessment. Hidden curvatures are always present in 3d and the lecture will focus on the rules of 3d anatomy. Moreover new softwares and 3d rendering of cases will be presented to help analyzing 3d CBCT images in a more precise and detailed way.