histological insights of the myth and reality in pulp regeneration
Regenerative dental procedures have a long history, originating around 1952, when Dr. B. W. Hermann reported the application of Ca (OH) 2 in a case report of vital pulp amputation. Since then regenerative dentistry has taken wide leaps especially in the area of pulp regeneration. In this review we aimed at assessing key techniques that represented paradigm shifts in the approach of pulp regeneration from the Herman pulp recapping technique till the de novo pulp regeneration models in our ongoing research project that included regenerating the dentin pulp complex in an emptied root canal space and investigating the newly formed tissues. Putting into consideration that the counterargument to the development of regenerative endodontic procedures is that the pulp in a fully developed tooth plays no major role in form, function, or esthetics, and thus its replacement by a filling material in conventional root canal therapy is the most practical treatment. We aimed at investigating the actual functional role retrieved by the regenerated tissues as illustrated by their histological structure and actual cellular functions and alignments. Finally in our review we reached the conclusion that although the regenerated pulp has the potential to revitalize teeth and regain all its former functional form ,esthetics and capability to repair , it renders the tooth susceptible to further pulp disease and may require retreatment. The implantation of engineered tissues also demands enhanced microbiological control methods required for adequate tissue regeneration. In the future, the scope of regenerative endodontics may be increased to include the replacement of periapical tissues, gingival, periodontal ligaments, and even whole teeth.